The tomato, whose scientific name is Lycopersicon esculentum, belongs to the Solanaceae family and originates from the American continent, in particular from the central and southern area: Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. When it arrived in Europe its fruits were long considered poisonous (as are actually those of many members of his family). For this reason, for several centuries it was used only for decorative purposes. It should also be noted that at the time the fruits produced were much smaller and less tasty than those we know today, obtained only thanks to careful crossings and selections.
Hybridization between the 9 different species has given us a very wide range of tomatoes: they can be found in many different sizes, colors and flavors. In recent years, in particular, work has been done on the elimination of the acid taste and on the greater shelf life. Great successes on this front have come from the cherry varieties, the datterini and the cluster ones.
Lycopersicon esculentum, originating in the tropical and subtropical areas of Latin America (probably Peru or Mexico), is grown throughout Italy both in vegetable and industrial crops.
The plant normally reaches a height ranging from 50 cm to 2 m. It has hair both on the stem and on the leaves and is erect or sarmentose (depending on the type of crop chosen).
The flower usually grows on the opposite side of the leaf and takes on a yellow calyx shape. The tomato berry - of variable shape, size and color in relation to the variety - has a smooth skin and a fleshy pulp with an internal subdivision in loggias, containing the flattened circular seeds of a yellow-white color.
The various types of tomato are divided both according to the shape of the berry and according to its final use.
They can be:
In relation to the final use you can have table, concentrate, juice and peeled tomatoes.
Generally the recommended varieties for the vegetable garden are table and preserving varieties, both for the type of cultivation and for the type of use.
The varieties that are recommended for fresh use are as follows:
Ace F1 Round. Seeding feb / apr. Harvest June / week Climbing
Ausonio F1 Round Seeding feb / apr Harvest june / week Climbing
Monte Carlo F1 Round Sowing feb / apr Harvest june / week Climbing
S. Marzano 2 Peretta Sowing feb / apr Harvest june / week Climbing
Rome VF Peretta Sowing feb / apr Harvest June / week P. Bassa
Cuor di Bue Cost. Sowing feb / apr Harvest june / week Climbing
Ben Hur F1 Const. Sowing Feb / Apr Harvest June / Sep Creeper
Principe Borghese Cherry Sowing Feb / Apr Harvest June / Sep Low plant
The abbreviation F1 indicates that the varieties are Hybrid.