Prunus Persica is a plant from Persia from which the Latin name "persica" derives, it grows spontaneously also in China. The peach tree is a fruit tree of modest size, in fact, in its natural state it only reaches 4-5m in height. It has lanceolate leaves up to 20cm long, the flowers are generally pink in color and bloom very early, making the peach tree particularly sensitive to spring frosts. The fruits have a velvety yellow-reddish skin, the pulp, according to the variety of Prunus Persica, can be yellow or white with red veins, more evident near the core. Presumably from a gemmary mutation, plants with glabrous, smooth skin fruits, called nectarines or peach-walnuts, were obtained, from which, subsequently, different varieties were selected with different characteristics both on the size, on the color and on the time of fruit ripening. There are also particular selections of peaches, called percoche or duracine, whose fruits are small in size and very regular in shape, have firm and consistent pulp, therefore suitable for handling, they are used exclusively by the industry for the production of peaches. syrups and fruit salads.
The rootstock most used by nurserymen for the prunus persica It is undoubtedly the franc which has excellent affinity with most peach varieties. It resists drought well but fears heavy, clayey and impermeable soils, in which the plant becomes particularly sensitive to diseases and quickly runs out. Sometimes it is customary to graft the peach tree on the wild almond tree, which gives good results on stony and calcareous soils, where the franc does not find good conditions for development.