When preparing to face the preparation of the garden, it is important to have fairly precise ideas both on the use that you intend to do, and on the conditions in which you will find yourself operating.
Availability of space and time, economic resources must guide the choices in order to find the optimal solutions not only for its creation, but also for its maintenance over time. Water limits or particular atmospheric conditions must lead to realistic and rational choices. A rose garden, as much as it may be our aspiration, in certain contexts is absolutely to be excluded, for example, a typical Mediterranean garden could be preferred, with more contained needs and equally capable of giving delights of colors and scents.
The main factors to be evaluated in the preliminary phase of creation and preparation of the garden essentially concern three fundamental environmental characteristics: type of soil, climate and water availability.
Although some technical interventions may be able to improve certain environmental conditions, allowing a certain adaptability to the different species to be planted, the goal should be to optimize existing resources as much as possible.
The parameters that characterize the type of soil concern both its structure (texture, thickness, slope) and its chemical peculiarities (acidity or basicity, mineral and organic elements, etc.). A clayey and cold soil could effectively host some ornamental species and not others. A soil poor in phosphorus or in organic matter will have to orientate the annual fertilizations appropriately.
As regards the climatic aspects, great attention must be paid to the trend of temperatures during the year, with the identification of any thermal zeroes, late spring frosts, peaks of summer temperatures above 35 ° C. These data, easily available in different online sites, specialized in climatology and divided by regions and provinces, must be accompanied by those relating to rainfall and its seasonal distribution.
Watering, especially in the summer months, will be able to support the inevitable natural water shortages, but the volumes of water available for irrigation interventions must carefully guide the choice of species to support.
Finally, identifying exposure and prevailing winds can guide both the subsequent design phase and that of choosing the location of the different plants within the garden.